In Assignment 2 I focused on looking at Chapter 4 of the Tippin Point, in particular the part about the Broken Window Theory and the removal of graffiti from subway trains in New York, 1984-1990. I though about how graffiti removal from trains could be easier, cheaper and more environmentally friendly. I came up with the idea of removable graffiti where vinyl stickers are pt on the side of trains so that the graffiti can be peeled off and put up in other more welcoming environments. Assignment 3 asks you to look in to the ideas and problems that appear with your idea from Assignment 2 in more detail by using the Library and the Library Cross Search. After doing a quick mind map I used cross search to find out about all issues surrounding graffiti and the removal of graffiti. I also checked out the Library to find out further more resources connected with my idea. Below is a bibliography of the useful resources I found.
Kees Keizer, Siegwart Lindenberg, Linda Steg, (2008) 'The Spreading of Disorder', Science Express Vol. 322, No.5908, 2008
This magazine article is the first of reports on what constitutes disorder. The article is mainly about a study that they carried out to find answers to this unanswered question. In the study they generated a hypotheses about the spread of disorder and tested them in 6 field experiments. they look at the Broken Window theory in detail and create insightful conclusions from their experiments.
Eleanor Young, (2001) 'Paint Fight', RIBA journal, 2001 Sept, v.108, n.9, p.73,75
The main focus of this article is design strategies to deter graffiti. However it looks at it from an architects point of view and in relation to architects which is interesting because they tackle it from a different angle and look at graffiti in a different light opposed to local government and policing schemes. They feel that the answer to graffiti is to consider it at the start of the design process compared to worrying about it when it's too late.
Lindsey Othen-Price, (2006) 'Making Their Mark: A Psychodynamic View of Adolescent Graffiti Writing', Psychodynamic Practice, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 5-17, Feb 2006
This paper tries to find an understanding behind the behaviour of adolescent graffiti artists and the way in which adolescents make public statements illegaly. The author feels that it is a predominatley male activity and looks in to the reasoning behind this and the links between puberty, emotions, difficulties and the need to do graffiti. The author also tackles the differences between individual and gang writing. This is a good source as in order to prevent graffiti you have to know why people do it.
Penelope J. Craw, Luis Lelend, Michelle Bussell, Simon Munday, Karen Walsh, (2006) 'The Mural As Graffiti Deterrence', Environment & Behavior, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 422-434, May 2006
This study investigates whether the use of colourful murals could significantly reduce graffiti attacks in areas prone to graffiti. They tested this by painting a colourful mural on a wall section covered in graffiti and compared this to another wall close by that they cleaned some of the graffiti off of. As predicted the section of wall that did not have the mural on was subject to significantly higher levels of graffiti during the test process.
M. Halsey, (2002) The meanings of graffiti and municipal administration, AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF CRIMINOLOGY 35 (2): 165-186 AUG 2002
This article explores sociocultural aspects of graffiti, and looks at municipal administrative responses to its occurrence. The article looks at how it is hard to classify graffiti as crime or art as there are so many different types and styles. There are interviews with council representitives and graffiti artists to try and gain a better understanding of good and bad graffiti. The article suggests that it is possible for regulatory bodies to engage with and promote graffiti culture.
The Design Council, (1979) 'Designing Against Vandalism'
This book is a really good source becasue it lets me look at how the removal of graffiti has been tackled in the past and how communities and buildings are designed to prevent it. It looks at how it can be tackled in different areas such as council estates and in schools. It has good images, case studies and really tackles the subject well and in detail.
Technical Conservation, Research and Education Division, (1999) 'The Treatment of Graffiti on Historic Surfaces', No 18
Although the title of this book suggests that it only tackles the subject of removing graffiti from old buildings, in actual fact it tackles many issues surrounding graffiti. It looks at the public perception of graffiti, the psychology of the graffitist, the cultural value of graffiti, community involvement, types of graffiti and types of removal methods. It basically tackles all the important issues that I need to touch on to understand how, why, and what about graffiti and really helps in al aspects.